Points & Pixels

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Infusing Reality into 3D Models
The rise of BIM, the rise of 3D in construction, the rise of 4D, and even the rise of 5D has been reported in many publications in the recent past.

The UK is now mandating a BIM Level 2 for government projects to reduce risk, delivery and operational cost as well as to improve predictable planning. Of course, the UK is not the only country eying BIM and its related digital technologies. Norway has also been on the forefront and many other countries are well under way adopting BIM. According to McGraw Hill’s Smart Market Report in 2014, resulting BIM adoption in North America skyrocketed from 28% to 71% between 2007 and 2012.

Clearly, there are a lot of 3D models around these days!

Once construction has started, the question arises how well does the 3D original model still fit with reality? It is a laborious, error prone task to first determine if there are variances between model and reality. Then the decision has to be made which variances have to be fixed in reality and which differences have to be reconciled in the model. If a model is updated to the as-built conditions, it is a very manual and oftentimes tedious task.

At SKUR, we believe that this entire process can be automated. In fact, due to size and/or complexity, it is nearly impossible to reconcile some models with as-built conditions without such automation.

As the cost of capturing reality with point clouds (from LIDAR or photogrammetry) continues to decrease, frequent snapshots of ongoing construction are more and more affordable. These baselines can easily be used to automatically compare reality with 3D models. SKUR analyzes and visualizes the geometrical variances between the point cloud data and the model. We augment both, design model and point cloud to easily spot small and large variances. Our fully scalable, cloud-based service computes for each building element the discrepancies between model and reality. For example, if a column is displaced with respect to the model, we know by how much it is displaced and in which direction.

Following the trajectory of lower reality capturing cost and fast cloud-based automated analysis, once you know the variance between model and reality for every building element, it is only a logical next step to automate the creation of as-built models–to regularly infuse reality into the 3D models.

Now imagine the analyses you can perform if you had consecutive 3D snapshots of your construction project–it goes far beyond automated as-built modeling and will be subject of a future article.

For more information, Contact: Nicolas Arnold, VP of Product Development, SKUR Inc. cell +1 (650) 722 8038, nic.arnold@skur.com, info@skur.com www.SKUR.com

Dielmo Power Line Cloud Services Address Operational Needs
With more than 85,000 km of power line mapping in the last four years, DIELMO3D located in Valencia, Spain is a specialized LiDAR analysis company that provides sophisticated and highly accurate products for the electricity industry. Their extensive power line experience has allowed them to develop their own processing and QA workflow to provide faster and higher quality results.

By making LiDAR data, ortho photos and other information accessible to all interested personnel in a manner that is understandable to all parties is becoming an increasing priority. For electric transmission applications, it is beneficial to display LiDAR data in 3D, by height, intensity, and classifications; Analyze the data by creating profiles; Classify profiles and get information from each point, utility personnel can detect danger areas, measure pole distances, height of wires and monitor valuable infrastructure.

Dielmo’s Cloud Services host data and projects on a centralized database and provides access by numerous avenues to any type of geographic information (LiDAR, Raster, vector and files) made accessible, useful and understandable to anyone who has permission to access the data.

The LiDAR server provides ability to visualize and download data, integrate with GIS data, content manager to update the web portal layers, and security for Internet/Intranet solutions. 2D and 3D GIS Web Solutions provides the display of power line projects on a customized 2D GIS interface or on a 3D virtual globe with security access. This allows anyone to work with their own data online, run analysis and calculations, manage content, share results and it is 100% customizable and updatable. Any geospatial data can be added to the online project (LiDAR, raster and vector data) allowing 3D visualization, profiles measurement, real time geo-processing services online.

Geo-Links Cloud Online Reports allow electric transmission managers to display, visualize and share reports and documents by connecting them to online datasets. Generate Geo-links by adding LiDAR, GIS, point clouds in 3D, high resolution photos of poles and wires to any document and display the data on streaming without the need for GIS software.

Dielmo3D provides classification of data, vectorization of transmission networks, and risk evaluation of vegetation encroachment into power lines. They classify the original LiDAR data and provide rapid, accurate classified data in specified themes, such as: Buildings, Wooden poles, Ground, Vegetation (high, medium, low), Infrastructure, electric towers, Power lines (2D, 3D), Roads and other encroachments.

Dielmo3D Power Line Services show where, when and how utility vegetation managers should apply their prescriptions and comply with vegetation regulatory issues. LiDAR provides utility vegetation and ROW managers the situational awareness, intelligence and information technology to ensure they are in compliance with Reliability Standards and avoid costly vegetation related outages.

For more information, please visit: www.dielmo.com, Dielmo3D headquarters: Pl. Vicente Andrs Estells 2Bajo. 46950 Xirivella, Valencia (ESP) Phone/Fax: +34 963137212 E-mail: dielmo@dielmo.com

Scanning of the Davelis Cave using GeoSLAM ZEB-REVO
Davelis Cave, also known as the Amomon cave, is a well-known cave located in the South-western slopes of Mount Pendeli in Northern Athens, Greece. Its altitude is approximately 700 metres above sea level. Davelis Cave was discovered in the 5th century BC. The surrounding area was used as a marble quarry by the builders of the Acropolis, and the cave was discovered by chance, during works for the extraction of marble.

The main chamber of the cave has a length of 85m, maximum width of 40 meters and a maximum height of 20 meters.

At the entrance of the cave, there are two small adjoined Byzantine chapels dedicated to Saint Nicholas and Saint Spyridon. The dome of the larger chapel is inscribed with the date 1234, and was decorated with a mural, now removed to the Byzantine Museum, which represented the last Greek archbishop of Athens, Michael Akominatos. Many other ancient artifacts excavated from the cave depict Pan and his nymphs.

Using the GeoSLAM ZEB-REVO, a full scan of the cave and the two chapels was performed in just 20 minutes! The final point cloud was automatically produced by GeoSLAM Desktop software the same day.

The ZEB-REVO, unlike terrestrial laser scanners, doesn’t have to be static during scanning, but holding it their hand, the user can walk through the area and easily measure even the most hidden or hard to reach areas. Without the need for targets, the GeoSLAM software automatically undertakes the cloud registration and therefore no action is required from the user for the derivation of the complete point cloud.

Mr Gregory Loutridis, owner of Landmark, says: "As existing users of terrestrial laser scanners, we were really impressed by the facility of REVO’s use and the remarkably little time consumed in the field. The tremendous reduction of the time during and after the scanning using GeoSLAM ZEB-REVO, compared to the classical terrestrial laser scanners that we use, leads to the important reduction of my company’s labor costs. What is more, the procedure of the scanning itself, has become a pleasant process for the users as they don’t worry about the positions of the scanner and the possible loss of accuracy during the post processing registration of the point cloud etc. They just walk! So, GeoSLAM has brought the "future" of laser scanners in the present!"

About Landmark
Landmark was founded in 1968 and for the last 48 years has been meeting the requirements for surveying equipment of various customers such as universities, public institutions, construction companies, surveyors and civil engineers. Landmark has a powerful sales network all over Greece. The main objective of the company all these years is to provide professional and cost-effective solutions to our customers. Landmark’s experienced and dedicated engineers support every pre and after sales question. In Landmark offices there is a complete service laboratory in which every instrument is repaired immediately by its engineers. The expertise and the high-end technology of the products that Landmark distributes have given Landmark a leading position in the Greek market.

For more information, contact: Landmark–G. Loutridis, 248, Vouliagmenis Ave., Agios Dimitrios, 17343, Athens, Greece, Tel: +30 210 9956801, www.landmark.com.gr, e-mail: info@landmark.com.gr

Value-adding survey tool
Rix’s Creek open cut mining operation has embraced Maptek I-Site laser scanning for surveying, mine optimisation and monitoring. Thermal coal and high quality, semi-soft coking coal is extracted using a multi-seam bench technique to mine up to 9 seams and splits.

Recent acquisitions and expansion required greater survey capacity for the eastern Australian mine. Safe capture of accurate data is a top priority.

While UAVs would allow capture of large areas from overhead, there were concerns around data accuracy and processing time. I-Site systems were used by nearby mines, carrying a reputation of robustness and ease of use. A demonstration of month end survey with a vehicle mounted I-Site system sealed the deal and the operation implemented an I-Site 8820 laser scanner immediately.

Ease of use and speed were stand out features, along with automated survey workflows. The safe scanning distance eliminates risks involved with traditional methods.

Rix’s Creek has seen survey improved through up-to-date accurate as-built and void models. Fast, accurate end of month surveys are conducted and highwall scans enable geological markup. Drill and blast hole clearance and optimisation, along with deformation monitoring, are part of the new solution.

I-Site ties directly into onsite RTK GPS for easy identification of areas where more information is needed while crews are in the field.

Calculating offsets between drillhole design and highwall scanning prevents overcharging material close to the highwall face which would lead to flyrock. I-Site Studio 6 software makes this easier by allowing certain items in the view to be sectioned and others to remain unsectioned.

Tripod and vehicle mount setup provides great versatility. Static setup gives the high accuracy needed to collect weekly data for monitoring movement.

The integrated camera has proved very useful for geological mapping, and the imagery assists in visualisation and sharing of data. Overlaying design surfaces or monitoring information on the images is a powerful tool for data handover.

More information: solutions@maptek.com

A 5.245Mb PDF of this article as it appeared in the magazine complete with images is available by clicking HERE